Emissions of one of the chemicals most responsible for the Antarctic ozone hole are on the rise, despite an worldwide treaty that required an end to its production in 2010, a new NOAA study shows. Global production of CFC-11, which has been used as a refrigerant and in insulating foams, has been banned since 2010 under the Montreal Protocol. The startling resurgence of the chemical, reported in Nature, will likely spark an global investigation to track down the mysterious source.
The slowdown in reduction of CFC-11 also has implications for the fight against climate change.
The 1987 Montreal Protocol banned industrial aerosols such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) that were chemically dissolving ozone, especially above Antarctica. A research letter published Wednesday in the journal Nature takes a look at the possible causes for the spike.
"A timely recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer depends on a sustained decline of CFC-11 concentrations", the wrote. This conclusion was confirmed by other changes recorded in NOAA's measurements during the same period, such as a widening difference between CFC-11 concentrations in the northern and southern hemispheres - evidence that the new source was somewhere north of the equator.
CFC-11 still contributes about a quarter of all chlorine - the chemical that triggers the breakdown of ozone - reaching the stratosphere.
If the source of these new emissions can be identified and controlled soon, the damage to the ozone layer should be minor, Montzka said.
Boston Scientific (BSX) Shares Bought by M&T Bank Corp
The stock of Boston Scientific Corporation (NYSE: BSX ) earned "Buy" rating by BMO Capital Markets on Wednesday, November 29. The medical equipment provider reported $0.33 EPS for the quarter, topping analysts' consensus estimates of $0.32 by $0.01.
CFC-11, used primarily for foams, can last up to 50 years in the atmosphere once it is released.
A simple model analysis of our findings suggests an increase in CFC-11 emissions ... despite reported production being close to zero4 since 2006 ...
"The analysis of these extremely precise and accurate atmospheric measurements is an excellent example of the vigilance needed to ensure continued compliance with provisions of the Montreal Protocol and protection of the Earth's ozone layer", Fahey said.
Keith Weller, a spokesman for the United Nations Environment Program, which helps implement the protocol, said the findings would be presented to the parties to the agreement for review. "It's therefore critical that we identify the precise causes of these emissions and take the necessary action".
The USA ceased production in 1996 and other countries agreed to phase out CFC production by 2010. "But we don't know of any folks who are destroying buildings at a much more dramatic rate than they were before", said Montzka.
A study earlier this year found that the ozone layer is unexpectedly declining in the lower stratosphere - 10 to 24 kilometers above sea level - over the planet's populated tropical and mid-latitude regions. However, that decrease is significantly slower than it would be without the new CFC emissions.
Today's fork neither creates a new coin, nor does it correct an existing problem, but rather strictly innovates in two ways. Roger Ver gives his thoughts on Bitcoin Cash and its fork in a news interview with CNBC's Fast Money .
Investors in previous funding rounds include such giants as Goldman Sachs , Baidu and investment bank China International Capital. Bringing Poloniex into the fold put Circle on track to generate more than $1 billion in annual revenue, Fortune reported .
The new Honda Amaze 2018 is based on a all-new platform and the kerb weight of the compact sedan stands between 905kg and 1,039kg. The Amaze gets dual-tone interiors with a 3-spoke multi-functional steering wheel and a twin-pod instrument cluster.
But Arteta hasn't managed on any level and some Gunners supporters are unsure they want an untried manager taking over the reins. Moving forward, Arteta is considered as what Arsenal are looking for in the wake of Wenger .
Solano County Public defenders office did not respond immediately to request for information on legal representation for Allen. The charges allege that she caused the children to be in a situation that was likely to produce great bodily injury and death.
WhatsApp Stories now counts 450 million daily active users, while Instagram Stories has racked up 300 million daily active users. The aim is to make it more attractive to people who can't use Stories the way it is now - and therefore don't use it at all.
Production was halted due to a shortage of parts caused by a May 2 fire at Meridian Magnesium Products in Eaton Rapids. The production hiccup will cost Ford 12 cents to 14 cents per share in the second quarter.
As for the dress that caused an earlier commotion, some people said it was white and gold, while others saw blue and black. Amid the background noise, you're able to focus on what your dining partner is saying.
Live Nation launches Women Nation Fund
On Monday, October 16 the stock rating was maintained by Jefferies with "Buy". (NYSE:LYV) on Friday, May 4 to "Outperform" rating. Northwestern Mutual Wealth Mgmt Co holds 0% or 117 shares in its portfolio. 35,995 are owned by Keybank National Association Oh.
Seven Teams Earn NCAA Public Recognition Awards
The NCAA's April is created to track the academic progress of each student-athlete on scholarship at a particular institution. The Chippewas have earned a spot in the top 10 in each of the four seasons since the program's resurrection in fall, 2014.
Eight-Year-Old Girl Indecently Assaulted In Sydney Home Invasion
Superintendent Karen McCarthy said: 'We are asking any member of the community who has seen anything suspicious to come forward'. The lady was not bodily injured and ran to her mom proper after the horrifying incident who then instantly contacted police .
Amazon.com (AMZN) Shares Bought by Sigma Planning Corp
The e-commerce giant reported $3.27 earnings per share for the quarter, topping analysts' consensus estimates of $1.80 by $1.47. Florida-based Smith Chas P & Associates Pa Cpas has invested 0.08% in Amazon.com, Inc. (NASDAQ:FB) rating on Tuesday, June 20.